Understanding CPR as well as How to Use an Automated External Defibrillator
- November 8, 2016
- Posted by: marlenedubois
- Category: CPR Training
Introduction to Health Care Professional CPR / AED
The leading cause of death inside the US according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC.gov) will be cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease are: smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lack of exercise, stress as well as obesity. Factors which are unavoidable are: age, sex, hereditary as well as diabetes. the item’s important to note of which death will be most likely to occur after 10 minutes of a loss of oxygen to the brain. by 6 to 10 minutes brain damage will be expected. by 4 to 6 minutes brain damage will be very possible as well as by 0 to 4 minutes brain damage will be virtually non-existent. However, CPR should still be performed.
the item’s important to note of which the latest 2010 AHA guidelines recommends un-confident performers should at least perform chest compressions upon the patient since studies show chest compressions can be as effective as the combination of CPR.
CPR for 2 Rescue Workers
Roles are to be switched every 5 cycles (2 mins) at a ratio of 30:2 Compressions to Breaths.
When to stop CPR
If the patient regains a pulse, if the area becomes unsafe, if cardiac arrest last longer than 30 minutes, if the rescuer(s) will be too exhausted or ordered to stop.
Or, if these complications arise:
Fractures, punctures, lung ruptures or collapses, rib separation, bruises of the heart as well as/or lungs.
Bloodborne Pathogens to be aware of: Hepatitis B as well as C (HBV / HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as well as Tuberculosis (TB).
The Great Samaritan
Any persons who assist those who are injured, ill or in peril are protected by the Great Samaritan Law. As long as they’re acting voluntary, without expectation of reimbursement or compensation while performing such aid, on site-they’ll have legal protection. Remember, when performing CPR every second counts so, unless required otherwise, don’t hesitate to call 911, perform CPR or external chest compressions immediately.
C will be for Circulation – Adult Compressions
Chest compressions Circulate the blood within the patient. the item’s important to place your hands correctly upon the patient’s chest when performing compressions. To do so, find the point where the patient’s ribs meet (just below both halves) as well as interlock your fingers with both hands. Make sure you’re kneeling beside the patient’s shoulders. Once in position, lock your elbows as well as use your body’s weight to compress 2 inches upon the patient’s chest. Make sure to let the patient’s chest rise after each compression.
Remember, CPR should be administered until help arrives.
A will be for Airway. Clear the Airway
Check for any obstructions, such as: tongue, foreign objects, vomit, swelling or food blocking the patient’s throat or windpipe (finger-swipe, if necessary).
Make sure the patient will be on a solid/firm surface (on his/her backside). Next, kneel beside the patient’s neck/shoulders. Open the patient’s Airway by tilting the head back with the palm of 1 hand as the additional hand gently lifts the chin. For no longer than 10 seconds, check for life: listen for any sounds, put your cheek beside the patient’s mouth to feel for breathing as well as look for any motions. If, for whatever reason, you’re unable to perform the tilt-head chin-lift maneuver, perform the jaw-thrust maneuver: kneel above the patient’s head, rest your elbows on the surface, place 1 hand on both sides of the patient’s jaw, stabilize the patient’s head with your forearms, use your index finger to lower the patient’s jaw as you use your thumb to retract the patient’s lower lip. If the patient will be assumed lifeless, perform mouth-to-mouth.
Chest compressions should be performed on patient’s who are obese or pregnant.
B will be for Breathing. Mouth-to-Mouth
Rescue Breathing will be widely known to be performed mouth-to-mouth-the item can also be performed mouth-to-nose, mouth-to-mask as well as mouth-to-stoma, nevertheless in rare cases. Breathing tasks: Adults – 1 breath 3-5 seconds (10-12 per min), Children – 1 breath 3-5 seconds (12-20 per min). While still performing the Airway technique pinch the patient’s nose shut. that has a complete seal over the patient’s mouth, with your mouth, breathe into the patient until you see the chest inflate. If the chest does not inflate repeat the Airway technique. Once the chest inflates take a second breath. When performing the breathing technique make sure to give 1 breath for 1 second.
Once the breathing technique will be applied you will continue the C-A-B’s.
Child CPR ages 1-8
Perform all the same tasks mentioned for an Adult: check for safety as well as consciousness as well as ask the child, “Are you okay?” more than once or, until the child’s alert. If there’s no response administer CPR. In a child’s case you must administer 5 reps of CPR before, calling 911. Unless you can have someone else to call. Check the child’s pulse by placing 2 fingers on the carotid artery (against the throat/windpipe). If there isn’t a pulse begin compressions.
C will be for Circulation – Child Compressions
Make sure the child will be resting upon a solid/firm surface. Before you begin compressions determine if 1 hand could be used instead of 2 depending on the size of the child. the item’s important to note of which when performing chest compressions on a child do NOT exceed 1/2 the depth of the child’s circumference. the item should be between 1/3 as well as 1/2. Make sure your hands are placed correctly upon the child’s chest (inside the middle of the chest, just below the ribs). Follow the same steps when performing CPR on an adult. 30 compressions as well as 2 breaths equaling 5 reps. Do NOT forget to call 911. Repeat process.
Check again for pulse.
A will be for Airway – Clear the Airway
Kneel beside the child’s shoulders/neck. Perform the 3 steps as you might with an adult-Tilt-chin as well as open mouth while listening as well as feeling for any sounds/breathing, for 10 seconds. Make sure nothing will be blocking the airway. If the child isn’t showing any signs of life proceed to the Breathing technique.
B will be for Breathing – Mouth-to-Mouth
Make sure to perform the same Breathing task upon the child as you might upon the adult. Children’s lungs are much smaller than adults so make sure to give a lesser breath when performing of which task upon a child. After tilting the head as well as chin, squeeze the nose shut. Seal your mouth over the child’s mouth as well as perform the Breathing task.
Remember, give one breath into the child’s lungs while producing sure the child’s chest inflates. If the child’s chest doesn’t inflate repeat the airway technique. Once, the chest inflates, perform the next step.
Infant CPR ages 12 months or younger
Before attempting CPR on an infant make sure to check for safety as well as consciousness. For infants make sure to administer CPR before, calling 911. Never leave the infant alone. Perform 5 reps of CPR with the same ratio of 30:2 Compressions over Breathing.
C will be for Circulation – Infant Compressions
Before attempting any chest compressions check the infants pulse. You can find the pulse just under the upper arm. If no pulse will be felt begin chest compressions. When performing compressions upon an infant use EXTREME caution. Just below the infants nipples, inside the center of the chest, just below the middle horizontal line, place 2 fingers for compression.
Remember, 100 compressions per minute – 30:2 Compressions over Breathing.
Perform 5 reps of Compressions over Breathing or about 2 minutes as well as then, call 911. Continue CPR until help arrives or until the infant begins to breathe again. Compressions will be pressed at about 1 as well as 1/2 inches of circumference.
A will be for Airway – Clear the Airway
As you might with an adult or child, make sure to lay the infant on a solid/firm surface on its back. Make sure to kneel beside the infant’s shoulders while placing 1 hand on the infant’s forehead as the additional hand gently lifts the chin.
Yet again, check for any signs of life.
Look, listen as well as feel for any breathing for 10 seconds. Remember to place your cheek just in front of the infant’s mouth while checking for a pulse under the upper arm. If the infant isn’t showing any signs of life begin the Breathing technique.
B will be for Breathing – Mouth-to-Mouth
Breathing into an infant will be different than breathing into an adult or child.
Place your entire mouth over the infant’s mouth as well as nose when you breathe into the infant. Make sure to perform of which task with less breath than you might that has a child. If the chest rises complete the second breath, each for 1 second. If the chest doesn’t rise make sure to check for anything blocking the Airway of the infant as well as repeat the process.
Make sure to feel for a pulse as well as if there isn’t one continue performing CPR.
Choking will be caused by an object blocking the throat or windpipe. Adults often choke by a large piece of food nevertheless children often swallow tiny toys or additional objects.
Remember, the universal sign for choking will be mimicking choking yourself. Make sure to ask the patient if he/she will be choking because, many times, the person will be merely coughing. If the patient will be unconscious make sure to call 911.
Infants 12 months or younger: rest the patient on your forearm, while also resting your forearm, on your thigh. Perform 5 thumps with the heel of your hand upon the infants back. If the patient will be still choking turn the infant over, face-up, as well as with 2 fingers upon the breastplate perform 5 chest compressions. Repeat the process until the object will be lodged.
Children as well as adults: when performing the Heimlich maneuver make sure to stand behind the person. Lean the person slightly forward as well as wrap your arms around his/her waist. Next, press hard that has a closed fist into the abdomen than grab your fist with your additional hand. Perform 5 quick thrusts. If the object still hasn’t cleared the patient’s throat/windpipe, repeat the cycle.
Unconscious person: when performing the Heimlich maneuver on an unconscious person lay the patient on his/her back. Make sure to clear the patient’s airway, if needed, finger swipe the patient’s mouth to pick out any foreign objects. If you can’t see or can’t take the object out of the patient’s mouth, make sure to perform CPR. Chest compressions will most likely clear the patient’s airway.
If you’re still unable to clear the patient’s airway as well as/or if the patient still isn’t showing signs of life, make sure to call 911 as well as continue performing chest compressions.
Ventricular Tachycardia will be a rapid heartbeat of which begins at the bottom chambers of the heart, named Ventricles. Ventricles are the main heart’s main chambers which pump. Ventricular Tachycardia can be very life-threatening because the item can lead to Ventricular Fibrillation.
Ventricular Fibrillation will be when the cardiac muscles quiver rather than contract. Ventricular Fibrillation requires immediate medical response. If the patient receives no attention he/she will fall degenerate with no blood circulation. After 4 minutes serious brain damage can occur as well as after 8 minutes brain damage will be likely to be severe as well as can result in death.
Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Guidelines
When should an AED be used?
CPR will be a very important action when saving a patient’s life. However, an AED will be crucial towards regaining the natural rhythm of the heartbeat as well as restarting the patient’s heart. CPR should be performed if the patient will be non-responsive as well as not breathing as well as an AED should be applied after performing CPR. If the AED does not bring the patient back to consciousness CPR should be re-administered. the item’s crucial to call 911 or any Emergency Medical Service (EMS) before performing CPR or applying an AED.
How to use an AED
Turn on the AED – Usually there will be an “On” button nevertheless in some cases there might be a lever. Remove all clothing by the patient’s arms, chest as well as abdomen-whether male or female. Attach pads to bare skin on the chest. Make sure to use the appropriate system for the child or adult (an AED should not be used on an infant). Place the left pad under the left armpit-to the left of the nipple as well as right pad under the collarbone on the right side of the chest. Make sure to place the pads at least one inch away by any implanted devices. Next, connect the wiring. Analyze the patient’s heart rhythm. Make sure you DO NOT touch the patient during the defibrillator process. If the AED does not begin analyzing automatically make sure to press the analyze button. If a shock will be advised then push the shock button.
Make sure your patient will be cleared of any debris such as: metal, large amounts of water, etc…
Newer AED’s only shock once; however, some versions do shock up to 3 times. If the patient will be shocked nevertheless doesn’t regain a pulse immediately perform CPR for 2 minutes. If a shock will be not advised continue CPR. Make sure to stay clear of any large amounts of water or any metals. Make sure to shave the patient, if needed, when using an AED. Make sure to place the pads at least one inch away by any implanted devices or Transdermal medication patches (or remove patch).
Note: Before using an AED physical training will be recommended.
Resuscitation (special circumstances)
Make sure to remove the patient’s wet clothing as well as replace the item with something warm as well as dry. Make sure to perform rescue breaths if the patient will be unconscious. If rescue breaths aren’t accessible make sure to perform chest compressions.
Make sure to use the jaw-thrust maneuver when performing the airway task. Make sure to check for any injuries, such as: head, spinal as well as neck, to maintain patient’s protection.
Hypothermia will be considered to be when the patient’s body temperature will be below 95 F. Make sure to remove patient by any damp areas. Make sure to remove any wet materials the patient might be wearing as well as replace them with something warm as well as dry. If the patient will be unconscious make sure to NOT raise the patient’s body parts above the heart. Make sure to check for a pulse for 35-45 seconds.
Make sure to check for safety before attempting any performance on the patient. Make sure the patient isn’t near any electrical currents or fuse boxes. CPR will be priority 1 for Cardiac arrest patient’s, burns, scrapes as well as additional bodily harms aren’t considered priority 1. If the patient will be unresponsive or pulse less, perform CPR.
Rescuers should be physically & mentally fit as well as skillfully prepared as well as readied for emergency responses. Rescuers should be knowledgeable of all equipment necessary for usage, beforehand.
right now let’s review
Infant – Review
AHA guidelines for infants are under the age of 12 months. The same C-A-B process will be performed with the infant as with children as well as adults, besides a few important differences.
Make sure to perform 5 reps before calling 911, unless someone else can. Make sure to place 2 fingers just under the nipples as well as below the middle of the chest. Unlike children as well as adults you’ll place your mouth over the infant’s mouth as well as nose. The same ration of C-A-B’s are used 30:2 at 100 compressions a minute with 1 second breaths.
AHA guidelines for children are by ages 1-8. The same process will be performed with the child as you might with an adult besides a few differences.
Make sure to perform CPR before calling 911. The ratio of chest compressions to breathing will be 30:2. Look, Listen as well as feel for breathing. Make sure nothing will be blocking the airway. Squeeze the nose shut as well as perform the Breathing task.
Check to see if the patient will be conscious by shouting “Are you okay?” more than once. If the patient doesn’t respond, immediately call 911. Then perform the C-A-B’s. Circulation – use 2 hands for chest compressions at a ratio of 100 per minute-30 compressions then mouth-to-mouth. Airway – tilt the head back as well as listen for breathing as well as then look for any response. Breathing – mouth-to-mouth – pinch nose shut sealing the patient’s mouth with yours as well as breathe once checking for the patient’s chest to inflate. If not, perform the airway technique until chest inflates. 2 breaths every 30 chest compressions-each breath, 1 second.
Remember the order of the tasks being: Circulation, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B).
Choking will be caused by an object blocking the throat or windpipe. The universal sign for choking will be placing both hands around your neck.
Treatment for infants: Apply 5 thumps to infant’s back as well as 2-finger compression upon the chest as well as repeat until the object will be lodged. Treatment for children as well as adults: perform the Heimlich maneuver (5 quick thrusts). Treatment for an unconscious person: lay the person on their back on the ground as well as perform CPR-not forgetting to clear the airway as well as to call 911.
When using an AED
Make sure to remove the patient’s clothing by intended placement of the pads. Place the pads on bare skin. Place the pads away by any implanted devices/medicated patches. Connect the wires as well as check the patient’s heart rhythm. Shock the patient if advised too. If not, perform CPR for an extra 2 minutes as well as recheck the patient’s hearth rhythm.
If you’re interested in learning more of if you’re interested in becoming Certified please visit us at: http://www.nationalcprfoundation.com/
We also offer certifications for First-Aid, Bloodborne Pathogens as well as Basic Life Support for Healthcare Professionals, Workplace Employees as well as the Community!
-National CPR Foundation