Risk Factors for Heart Disease – Health
- October 5, 2016
- Posted by: marlenedubois
- Category: CPR Training
The risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been categorized by the american
Major risk factors of which cannot be changed (increasing age, male gender, as well as also heredity)
Major risk factors of which can be changed (elevated blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, as well as also physical inactivity
various other contributing factors (obesity, diabetes, as well as also stress).
Major Risk Factors of which Cannot Be Changed
Approximately 55% of all heart attacks occur in people who are 65 years of age or older. of which age group accounts for more than 80% of the fatal heart attacks.
Until recently, the incidence of coronary heart disease among women has been largely unexplored. Men have been the primary subjects inside the coronary heart disease as well as also risk factor studies because of the high incidence of both among men. However, coronary heart disease will be also the leading cause of death as well as also disability among women, accounting for almost 250,000 deaths annually. Women have less heart disease than men, particularly before menopause. The reasons for the difference include the following:
The female hormone estrogen protects the coronary arteries by atherosclerosis
Women have higher circulating levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which also protects the arteries.
After menopause, though, the heart attack rate among women increases significantly until the mid-60s, when women’s risk will be equal to of which of men the same age. An alarming trend in recent years will be the increased incidence of heart attacks in premenopausal women who have been smoking cigarettes long enough for of which to affect their health, especially when combined with oral contraceptive use.
According to the AHA, “A tendency toward heart disease or atherosclerosis appears to be hereditary, so children of parents with cardiovascular disease are more likely to develop of which themselves.” A history of first degree male relatives (father, grandfather, as well as also brothers) who died of coronary heart disease before the age of 55 or first degree female relatives (mother, grandmother, as well as also sisters) who died of coronary heart disease before the age of 65 indicates a strong familial tendency. If the family history will be positive, the modifiable risk factors must be controlled.
Major Risk Factors of which Can Be Changed
Cholesterol will be a steroid of which will be an essential structural component of neural tissue; of which will be used inside the construction of cell walls as well as also for the manufacture of hormones as well as also bile (for the digestion as well as also absorption of fats). A certain amount of cholesterol will be required for Great health, nevertheless high levels inside the blood are associated with heart attacks as well as also strokes.
The AHA suggests of which Americans reduce cholesterol consumption to less than 300 milligrams per day (300 mg/day), of which fat intake be reduced to a maximum of 30% of the total calories consumed, as well as also of which saturated fat be reduced to no more than 10% of the total calories. Many authorities are convinced of which limiting total fat as well as also saturated fat will be more important than being overly restrictive of cholesterol.
Americans have made substantial progress in reducing cholesterol consumption. The average cholesterol consumed by men as well as also women respectively in 1960 was 704 mg/day as well as also 493 mg/day. By 1994,
How LDL cholesterol contributes to coronary artery disease will be not completely understood, nevertheless the “lipid oxidation theory” appears to hold the support of the scientific community. According to of which theory, LDLs do not latch on to the artery linings, depositing the cholesterol of which eventually forms plaque. Instead, high circulating levels of LDL inside the blood stimulate the cells beneath the artery lining to transport the LDLs into the artery wall. of which process will be facilitated when artery linings are damaged by any one or a combination of the following: cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, viruses, as well as also various other toxic substances.
After infiltrating the artery wall, LDLs are oxidized, or converted to harmful forms of which are toxic to endothelial as well as also smooth muscle cells, thus further damaging the artery lining. of which process triggers the body’s immune system, which responds by sending white blood cells, called monocytes, of which also penetrate into the inner layer of the artery. The monocytes turn into macrophages, which engulf oxidized LDLs in an effort to protect the artery by further damage. The macrophages become bloated by gobbling up LDLs, as well as also in of which condition they eventually develop into foam cells. Foam cells in turn stimulate the smooth muscle cells inside the affected arteries to grow in size as well as also number. of which adds to the thickness of the artery walls. Concurrently, blood platelets congregate at the sites of disease, further adding to the thickening process. The culmination of these events results inside the development of fatty streaks inside the arteries. of which will be an initial sign of coronary artery disease. Some of these streaks develop into atherosclerotic plaques, which are the lesions of which define diseased coronary arteries.
In some instances the cells lining the artery flake off or retract, exposing the foam cells lying beneath. Just as before, the body attempts to repair the damage, nevertheless the restoration process causes the wounded artery to scar down as a fibrous plaque. of which represents a later-stage lesion inside the development of atherosclerotic plaque.
Lesions grow over time by accumulating fibrous tissue, cholesterol, as well as also various other debris by the blood stream. Concomitantly, the channel narrows severely, diminishing blood flow to the myocardium. At of which point the lesion has progressed to a mature plaque. Finally, further damage to the artery wall may cause either a blood clot to develop or bleeding to occur into the core of the plaque, or the artery may go into spasm. Any of these events can abruptly interrupt or block the flow of blood to a portion of the heart muscle, resulting in a heart attack.
Heart attacks are rare when LDL values inside the blood are below 100 mg/dl. A national panel of experts has developed guidelines for safe as well as also unsafe levels of LDL. A high circulating level of LDL cholesterol will be positively related to cardiovascular disease. Weight loss, a diet low in saturated fat as well as also total fat, exercise, as well as also medication (if needed) will lower LDL levels inside the blood.
HDLs are involved in reverse transport; of which will be, they accept cholesterol by the blood as well as also tissues as well as also transfer of which to VLDLs as well as also LDLs for transport to the liver, where of which can be degraded, disposed of, or recycled. HDLs protect the arteries by atherosclerosis by clearing cholesterol by the blood. Cardiovascular health depends greatly on low levels of total cholesterol as well as also LDLs as well as also a high level of HDLs. Cigarette smoking, diabetes, elevated triglyceride levels, as well as also anabolic steroids lower HDL, whereas physical exercise, weight loss, as well as also moderate alcohol consumption raise of which.
Moderate alcohol consumption (two drinks or less per day) increases HDL cholesterol levels. An alcoholic drink will be defined as a 5 ounce glass of wine, or a 12 ounce beer, or 11/2 ounces of 80 proof spirits. However, alcohol will be a depressant of which will be responsible for nearly 50,000 traffic deaths annually as well as also contributes to one third of all drownings as well as also boating deaths. Alcohol impairs judgment as well as also removes inhibitions doing sure of which people under its influence behave in ways they ordinarily would likely not while sober. Alcohol consumption will be not an acceptable way to raise HDL cholesterol.
The higher the HDL, the greater the protection by cardiovascular disease. The average value for men will be 45 mg/dl, as well as also for women of which will be 55 mg/dl. of which biological difference in HDL levels between genders partly explains the lower incidence of heart disease in premenopausal women as compared with men. After menopause, HDL levels in women begin to decrease, as does their protection provided by of which subfraction of cholesterol. The ratio between total cholesterol (TC) as well as also HDL (TC/HDL) should also be considered when the risk will be interpreted. of which ratio will be determined by dividing TC by HDL. Another blood fat, the serum triglycerides, will be involved inside the development as well as also progression of atherosclerosis. Average serum triglycerides, depending on age as well as also gender, range by 50 mg/dl to 0 mg/dl.
Elevated triglycerides may not directly cause atherosclerosis, nevertheless they often accompany as well as also add to the severity of various other blood fat abnormalities. For example, high triglycerides tend to be accompanied by low HDLs, high LDLs, as well as also high total cholesterol. of which profile will be predictive of the development of atherosclerosis as well as also coronary heart disease.
quite a few studies have shown of which sedentary hypertriglyceridemic people can reduce serum triglycerides by as much as 45% when they participate regularly in moderately intense exercise. Physically fit people metabolize serum triglycerides more effectively than sedentary people as well as also are able to clear them by the blood more rapidly after a high-fat meal.