Hypertension; Facts You Need
- June 15, 2017
- Posted by: marlenedubois
- Category: Home Health Aide Training
WHAT is usually HYPERTENSION?
Hypertension is usually derived coming from two root words; Hyper meaning High as well as Tension meaning Pressure. Hypertension simply means high blood pressure. Pressure is usually the force generated when the heart contracts as well as pump blood through the blood vessels in which conduct the blood to various parts of the blood.
Although hypertension does not mean or result coming from excessive emotional tension, nevertheless evidence shows in which stress as well as emotional tension do cause increase in blood pressure, as well as if continuous, could be sustained.
High blood pressure is usually therefore generally defined as a blood pressure exceeding 140/90mmHg confirmed on multiple occasions. The top number (140) is usually called the SYSTOLIC PRESSURE, as well as This particular represents the pressure within the blood vessels (arteries) as the heart contracts as well as pump blood into circulation. The bottom number (0) is usually called DIASTOLIC PRESSURE, as well as This particular represents the pressure within the blood vessels as the heart relaxes after contraction. These figures measured in millimeters of Mercury (mmHg) reflect the highest as well as lowest pressures the heart as well as blood vessels are exposed to during circulation. The generally accepted normal value for blood pressure is usually 0/80mmHg. Above This particular value nevertheless less than 140/90mmHg is usually not considered to be hypertensive yet nevertheless signals danger, This particular is usually therefore called High normal.
An elevation of the blood pressure (Hypertension) increases the risk of developing Heart (Cardiac) diseases such as Heart Failure as well as Heart attack, Kidney diseases, Vascular diseases like athelosclerosis (hardening as well as narrowing of blood vessels), Eye damage as well as Stroke (brain damage).
These complications called End organ damage arise as a result of long standing (chronic) hypertension. nevertheless victims of hypertension are not aware, at an early stage, in which they develop the disease, until these complications start appearing. This particular is usually because hypertension shows virtually no signs/symptoms at the early stage. with This particular reason, This particular is usually generally referred to as the ‘Silent Killer’.
The damage caused by hypertension increases in severity as the blood pressure increases. Based on This particular hypertension can be classified as follows:
CATEGORY SYSTOLIC(mmHg) DIASTOLIC(mmHg)
Normal Less than 130 Less than 85
High Normal 130 – 139 85 – 89
Mild Hypertension 140 – 159 0 – 99
Moderate Hypertension 0 – 179 100 – 109
Severe Hypertension 180 – 209 110 – 119
Very Severe Hypertension Greater than 210 Greater than 0
Borderline Hypertension is usually defined as mildly elevated blood pressure in which is usually found to be higher than 140/90mmHg at some times as well as lower than in which at some other times.
Patients with borderline value need to have their blood pressure monitored more frequently. They also need to assess end organ damage to be aware of the significance of their hypertension.
This particular should, however, be emphasized in which patients with borderline hypertension have a higher tendency to develop a more sustained hypertension as they get older. They stand a modest risk of having heart related diseases. A close monitoring of their blood pressure as well as lifestyles could be very useful in This particular regard.
WHITE COAT HYPERTENSION
1 elevated blood pressure reading within the doctor’s office could be misleading, because the elevation might only be temporary. Evidence through the years has shown in which anxiety related to the stress of the examination as well as fear of the result often result in blood pressure elevation noticed within the doctor’s office only. Infact, This particular has been suggested in which one out of every four persons thought to have mild hypertension, actually may have normal blood pressure outside the physician’s office. This particular sort of elevated blood pressure noticed within the physician’s office is usually called ‘White Coat Hypertension’. Suggesting in which the white coat, symbolic of the physician, induces the patient’s anxiety as well as a passing increase in blood pressure. Accordingly, monitoring of blood pressure at home, when in a more relaxed state of mind, can provide a more reliable estimate of the frequency as well as/or consistency of blood pressure alterations.
WHAT CAUSES HYPERTENSION?
The Blood pressure is usually determined by two major parameters; Cardiac output i.e. the volume of blood pumped by the heart, as well as the Total peripheral resistance i.e. the resistance of the blood vessels through which blood flows. Hypertension is usually therefore an end result of either increased force of pumping by the heart, or constriction/narrowing of blood vessels causing increased resistance to blood flow or both.
Using the cause of hypertension as a yardstick, two major types of hypertension can be described;
The former also called Primary or Idiopathic hypertension is usually by far the most prevalent type of hypertension. This particular accounts for over 0% of all hypertension cases. No clear cut cause(s) can be identified with This particular type of accommodation, hence the name Idiopathic.
The later accounts for less than 10% of all cases. In This particular case, the hypertension is usually secondary to an existing abnormality in one or more systems or organs of the body. The most common causes are related to kidney as well as hormonal problems. The persistent uncontrolled use of contraceptives, especially in females over 35years of age fall under hormonal causes of hypertension.
Since no clear-cut cause(s) can be adduce for the most common types of hypertension, as with the case with most non-communicable diseases, we therefore talk in terms of ‘Risk Factors’ as well as not causes. These Risk Factors are actions/inactions in which increases chances of getting a disease. Several researches through the years have shown in which some factors are directly or indirectly related to the occurrence of hypertension. Some of the factors include:
HEREDITARY: High blood pressure tends to run in some families as well as races. This particular is usually believed in which some inherited traits predispose some people to hypertension. For example, high blood pressure tends to be more prevalent in blacks than whites.
A family history of hypertension increases one chances of high blood pressure. Regular monitoring of blood pressure becomes very vital.
HIGH SALT INTAKE: High intake of Sodium Chloride (table salt) has being linked to high blood pressure. The condition develops mostly in societies or communities in which have a fairly high intake of salt, exceeding 5.8grams daily. In fact, salt intake may be a particularly important factor in relation to essential hypertension in which is usually associated with advancing age, black racial background, hereditary susceptibility, obesity as well as kidney failure. Research has shown in which:
a. Rise in blood pressure with age is usually directly related to raise level of sat intake, especially in blacks.
b. People who consume little sodium chloride develop no high blood pressure when they consume more, hypertension appears.
c. Increased Sodium is usually found within the blood vessels as well as blood of most hypertensives.
Cutting down on salt intake is usually therefore a reasonable step in preventing hypertension
A close relationship exists between hypertension as well as obesity. In fact This particular is usually believed in which most hypertensives are more than 10% overweight. Fat accumulation within the trunk or abdomen is usually not only related to hypertension nevertheless also to diabetes as well as hyperlipideamia (excess fat within the body). Obesity can contribute to hypertension in several ways. For one thing, obesity leads to a greater output of blood, because the heart has to pump more blood to supply the excess tissues. The increased cardiac output then can raise the blood pressure. For another thing, obese hypertensive individuals have a greater stiffness (resistance) within the peripheral arteries throughout the body. Finally, obesity may be associated which has a tendency for the kidneys to retain salt within the body. Weight loss may help reverse problems related to obesity while also lowering blood pressure. This particular has been estimated in which the blood pressure can be decreased 0.32mmHg for every 1kg (2.2pounds) of weight loss.
The International standard for measuring overweight as well as obesity is usually based on a value called BODY MASS INDEX (BMI). This particular value is usually derived by dividing the body weight (in Kilograms) by the square of height (in Metres).
i.e. BMI = Body weight (Kg)
Note: 1ft = 0.305metres.
For adults, a BMI less than 25kg/m2 is usually preferred.
25 – 29kg/m2 is usually considered overweight as well as above 30kg/m2 is usually Obesity.
LACK OF EXERCISE:
Sedentary normal individuals have a 20 – 50% higher risk of developing hypertension when compared to very active individuals. Exercise lowers both systolic as well as diastolic blood pressures. For example dynamic exercises such as brisk walking or jogging, swimming or bicycle ridding for 30 – 45mins daily or 3-5times a week may lower blood pressure by as much as 5 – 15mmHg. Moreover, there appears to be a relationship between the amount of exercise as well as the degree to which blood pressure is usually lowered. Thus, to a point, the more you exercise, the more you lower your blood pressure. Provided you do not over strain yourself. Normally, a particularly type of exercise is usually began, as well as gradually built up to a satisfactory level over time. Regular exercise reduces blood pressure, burn out unnecessarily fat as well as also makes the body healthier.
ALCOHOL as well as SMOKING:
These two constitute the social factors most related to high blood pressure. People who drink alcohol excessively (over two drinks per day) have a one as well as half to two times increase within the frequency of hypertension. The association between alcohol as well as high blood pressure becomes particularly noticeable when the alcohol intake exceeds the above per day. Moreover, the connection is usually a dose related phenomenon. In some other words, the more alcohol consumed, the stronger the chances of hypertension. This particular, probably will explain the prevalence of hypertension in populations where alcohol consumption is usually a habit.
Although smoking increases the risk of vascular complications (for example, heart diseases as well as stroke) in people who already have hypertension, This particular cannot be directly linked with increase within the development of hypertension. Nevertheless, smoking a cigarette can repeatedly produce an immediate, temporary rise in blood pressure of 5 – 10mmHg, nevertheless a permanent increase cannot be established. However, This particular is usually known in which some substances in cigarette, e.g. nicotine, alters the composition of the blood as well as also affects the blood vessels.
Smoking as well as alcohol control are integral part of any effort towards the primary control of cardiovascular diseases in any population.
STRESS: Although the role of stress as well as some other emotional factors in hypertension is usually difficult to define. However, This particular is usually known in which stress causes a physiological rise in blood pressure as well as This particular could be sustained if the stress becomes chronic (prolonged).
A STICH IN TIME
Since lifestyle components such as dietary patterns, obesity, physical activity, alcohol as well as smoking have been recognized as important risk factors, steps to reduce the occurrence of hypertension or to alleviate the condition (for those who are hypertensives) should involve lifestyle modification.
Dietary modifications include restricting salt intake cutting down or cutting out alcohol, reduced fat consumption, as well as reducing weight if overweight. The American Heart Association recommends a daily consumption of less than 6grams of table salt for normal individuals, as well as less than 4grams for hypertensives.
A regular exercise program such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling e.t.c.
for 30 – 45mins daily or 3-5 times a week could be very helpful.
Conclusively, This particular is usually very important to remember in which the only way to know if one’s blood pressure is usually on the high side is usually by taking your blood pressure frequently. Normally, your doctor could do in which for you. nevertheless for a more consistent as well as reliable monitor of blood pressure, a self-operated blood pressure monitor is usually crucial. Being very handy as well as always around, This particular allows you to follow up your blood pressure regularly as well as report an increase immediately.
Finally, always remember the WHO slogan “Know your Blood Pressure, if This particular’s high have This particular treated”. A healthy Heart adds life to years.
A stitch in time, they say, saves nine.