Health Celebrates Life – Gaining An Edge On Age
- February 14, 2017
- Posted by: marlenedubois
- Category: CPR Training
in which special piece of content is actually devoted to youthful aging, meaning how to be as alert along with able during the second half of life as during the first. There has never been a time like in which in science, when so many brilliant minds are working to unravel the mysteries of why our biological clocks wind down along with what can be done to slow in which decline. within the following paragraphs I bring you a report through the front lines of Aging Research, with tips through the experts on what you can do today to put more in life in your future years. What better way for Health to celebrate its own Longevity than to start you on the Road to Rejuvenation!
Consider Two Established Numbers: The Life Span of our species, the maximum time any human can stay alive, has been estimated at 115 years. Our Life Expectancy, the average length of time Americans definitely live, is actually only 75 years. The distinction is actually important because people generally believe in which life span has increased dramatically throughout history, when the idea hasn’t. Great Strides have been made in life expectancy, however. During the Roman Empire, life expectancy was a mere 22 years. however life span then was pretty much what the idea is actually today – somewhere around 115 years.
Life expectancy has continued to improve because we have eliminated or learned to treat so many fatal childhood ailments along with because we right now cope so much better with infectious diseases. however the ancients who made the idea past these roadblocks had as Great a chance as we moderns of inching towards 115 – along with as little chance of going beyond.
While scientists work feverishly to improve longevity, much of the public is actually ambivalent. To many, longer life means additional decrepitude. Dr. Roy Walford, Professor of Pathology at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine along having a leading expert in dietary restriction, is actually well aware of in which prejudice. “People are afraid of increasing life span because they think the idea means just adding old years onto old. however we’re talking about keeping people younger longer.” Indeed, the goal of longevity research is actually to extend youthfulness as well as life itself.
however the idea may not be turning out in which way. in which’s the view of Dr. Jacob Brody, an epidemiologist who is actually Dean of the School of Public Health at The University of Illinois in Chicago. Brody comes at you with scary statistics. “Today in Sweden,” he says, “Only 18 percent of all deaths occur in those under 65 years old. in which will be true throughout the rest of the developed world by coming decade.” Great news? Not definitely, says Brody. “Dying will occur later along with later, in which will give people time to get nonfatal, age dependent diseases.” What we should strive for, according to Brody, is actually “Active Life Expectancy – years one lives free of any illness along with at full function.” Right right now, he claims, for every four months tacked onto human life expectancy, only one month will be lived independently at full function.
Brody points out in which though we’ve added 25 years to the life expectancy of women in in which century, the age of menopause hasn’t been affected. He suggests a two-pronged approach to postponing nonfatal, Age-dependent Conditions: Studying the effects of behavior change, such as regular exercise along having a healthy diet, against these conditions; along with more basic research to answer questions such as, why do people’s eyes begin to deteriorate at age 40?
Aging is actually a basic mechanism in which brings our species to its knees. If you don’t think in which piece of content applies to you because you’re too young – well, if you’re old enough to read health articles, you’re probably already aging. Some scientists say we begin to age soon after puberty. Edward L/ Schneider, Director of the Buck Center for Research in Aging, a privately supported center carries a more radical view. “Aging starts somewhere around conception,” he likes to say. Whenever the idea starts, aging is actually a problem for more than the elderly. right now for the Great news, we’re starting to make headway.
Do Our Bodies Wear Out, Or Are Our Genes Preset To Self-Destruct?
While a breakthrough drug or therapy to extend life remains a far-off fantasy, scientists are producing headway tracking down clues to another mystery: Why do we age? What is actually the idea in which builds up, goes awry or is actually depleted, causing the alterations in physiology in which we interpret as aging?
the idea is actually unlikely in which these researchers will stumble on some magical potion or secret of perpetual youth, however they may make discoveries in which will allow our biological functions to run more efficiently along with avoid breakdowns. Their findings may slow some aging processes.
Scientists through the Soviet Union to California are testing various theories, taking care to separate what is actually cause along with what is actually merely effect. Some of the so-called causes of aging put forth by researchers today may turn out to be only superficial signs of a more important mechanism tomorrow. the idea would likely be silly, for instance, to say in which gray hair causes aging. Someday, when more is actually known about the processes of senescence, the following ideas may be absurd
The Tired Refrigerator Hypothesis
Scientists prefer to call in which the “stochastic” theory. A more dignified name, however essentially in which hypothesis holds in which our bodies are like any major appliance along with they wear out. (A stochastic system is actually a random system, one in which breaks down by chance, like an old refrigerator.) in which very well-liked theory comes in many forms along with is actually easy for the layperson to grasp: The body is actually like a Volkswagen; the clutch goes, the head gasket warps along with eventually the idea dies in a pool of oil. There’s only one problem: Human beings are neither appliances nor automobiles. On the positive side, we have cells in which replicate along with refrigerators do not. On the negative side, sure, cars wear out, however we can intervene quite effectively to extend their maximum life spans, something we can’t do with humans. The average life expectancy of an automobile is actually somewhere around eight years or 100,000 miles. Yet my neighbor carries a ’32 Ford in mint condition in which runs like a top. All the idea takes is actually perfect maintenance. A 1932 Ford on the road today is actually equivalent to a 534-year-old human, since the idea has exceeded life expectancy for its species by more than seven rimes.
Clock Of Aging Theory
A much more intriguing, along with more modern, concept is actually in which there’s a genetic program somewhere within the body in which dictates how fast (along with in what manner) each of us will age along with die. the idea has yet to be found, however some researchers speculate in which in which DNA clock might be contained in each cell, perhaps in a supergene, while others believe the idea resides within the brain. In fact, people have been aging along with dying like clockwork for many millennia, so the idea’s not too farfetched to believe in which a hard-wired mechanism controls in which genetic process.
in which theory takes many forms, however the idea’s basically a cross between the stochastic along with clock of aging concepts. The basic idea is actually in which the genetic code in which controls the production of the cells’ proteins goes awry. There are two ways of looking at in which: Either wear along with tear damages the genetic machinery along with causes these errors (stochastic theory) or, for some reason, the “errors” are built in to the gentic code (the clock of aging theory).
The error catastrophe theory has been “pretty much demolished,” according to Dr. Robert N. Butler, Brookdale professor of geriatrics at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in fresh York City, as old cells right now appear to do as well as young cells when the idea comes to protein production. the idea was a very useful theory for many years, however, as the idea spurred scientists to study the whole area of proteins along with genetic error.
The Smudged Xerox Hypothesis
in which one was dreamed up by the noted gerontologist Alex Comfort, better known for his book The Joy of Sex (Pocket Books, 1987). Think of the idea in in which way: Take a page of Health magazine along with photocopy the idea. Then photocopy your photocopy. right now make a photocopy of the second photocopy, along with so on. By the 50th copy, you will have a blurry mess. Likewise with cells, says Comfort. Every time they replicate, the fresh copy of DNA gets more along with more smudged. Comfort reportedly has since pulled away through in which notion, which in fact is actually a variation on error catastrophe.
The Autoimmune Hypothesis
When the immune system rebels, responses may be as trivial as hay fever, as painful as rheumatoid arthritis or as deadly as lupus. In in which theory, aging along with death are part of one, big autoimmune disease, in which the immune system becomes confused along with starts attacking the body’s own cells.
A person’s fate depends on whole families, or “suites,” of genes, say some experts. “Unless all members are perfect, you won’t live as long or as well as you should,” says Joan Smith-Sonneborn, who chairs the program on aging along with human development at the University of Wyoming in Laramie.
Smith-Sonneborn’s experiments show in which there may be a way to clean up accumulated DNA damage in imperfect genes. Many years ago, she made a landmark discovery in aging research when she bombarded single-cell organisms called paramecia with ultraviolet light, then shoved them under black light. The dark was known to trigger an enzyme in which repaired the DNA damage caused by sunlight. What Smith-Sonneborn discovered was in which these paramecia lived 50 percent longer than untreated paramecia did.
the idea’s the trendiest idea around, however in reality, the free-radical theory is actually simply an elegant variation on the stochastic theory. Namely, there are chemical agents called free radicals in which wear down our bodies.
The Glycation Hypothesis
Another hot theory holds in which blood sugar interacts with proteins manufactured by the body’s cells along with distorts the genetic information. Furthering in which notion is actually the fact in which diabetics who have difficulty metabolizing sugars often contract age-related diseases such as cataracts along with atherosclerosis while they are still relatively young. Edward J. Masoro of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio recently found in which long-lived rats in dietary-restriction experiments have low blood glucose, thus bolstering the glycation (through the word glucose) hypothesis even more.
The Death Hormone
Let’s finish up having a fun theory. the idea goes something like in which: There’s one part of us in which lives forever – DNA, the master molecule of heredity. Human DNA doesn’t want to die, so the idea keeps the species alive as best the idea can along with is actually passed through generation to generation.
Individuals, however, are expendable. Because a species must mutate or change to keep pace having a changing environment, along with because in which evolution is actually slow, the idea’s in in which species’ best interests to turn over generations as quickly as possible to ensure favorable mutations will show up within the gene pool.
in which is actually the thinking behind the rather wild theory in which there is actually a “death hormone,” a substance, possibly secreted by the pituitary gland, which ages us along with eventually kills us. For if we lived too long, we would likely hold up the process of evolution.
WANTED: 40 MORE YEARS
Alongside researchers working to untangle the mystery of why we age are practical-minded scientists concentrating on how to interfere with those processes under scrutiny. Two promising life-extenders involve food: on the one hand, eating more of certain substances to “clean up” cellular breakdown; on the some other, eating less to prolong life.
The Starvation Principle
the idea’s the only method in which actually increases life span (presently the idea stands at 115), along with the idea has worked every time the idea has been tried within the past 60 years. the idea’s called dietary restriction, along with the idea means dieting each day of one’s life. Oh yes, along with there’s a catch: We don’t know yet whether the idea works on humans.
Take a mouse, as gerontologist Roy Walford of the University of California, Los Angeles, had done many times, along with gave the idea about half the food a mouse usually eats. Then wait. By 36 months, a normally fed mouse will be dead, for in which’s the maximum life span of the species. however the dieting mouse will keep on going… along with going, until 54 months. We’re talking about increased life span, not just life expectancy. Normally mice within the best health under the best of conditions can’t break 36 months, however the under-fed rodents live on average, 50 percent longer.
Ronald W. Hart had the most ambitious study of dietary restriction. Leaving nothing to chance, he had nearly 0,000 lab animals in life-extending experiments at the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) in Jefferson, Arkanas. Of these, 25,000 mice were living on a diet in which’s about 60 percent the normal ration of lab chow – though the idea’s fortified to provide the same vitamins along with minerals. About 95 percent of the restricted mice live 35 months or longer. Only 25 percent of the controlled mice make the idea in which far. Said Hart, “We see no cancer in restricted mice [at the 35-month period].
“What’s interesting,” he continued, “is actually in which any layperson can tell the difference between the restricted animals along with those on the ‘buffet’ diet. The former are the happiest centenarians – within the mouse sense – I’ve ever seen. The ones on the buffet are either limping or dead.”
Why Does Caloric Restriction Work?
No one knows, though many theories exist. Some researchers maintain in which the idea simply wards off disease because the organism takes in fewer toxins. Others suspect the idea reduces the number of free radicals or increases the number of enzymes along with nutrients in which scavenge on free radicals. Walford said the idea might influence biomarkers of aging within the immune system or increase the DNA repair capacity of cells.
The more immediate, along with unanswered, question is actually whether dietary restriction increases life span in people. No one has yet done such a scientific study, however there is actually anecdotal evidence.
The Japanese island of Okinawa, for example, is actually a de facto dietary-restriction experiment in in which Okinawans eat through 20 to 40 percent less food than some other Japanese, a people not known for stuffing themselves. The result: Okinawa boats about 20 times the number of centenarians found within the rest of the entire world.
Extrapolating through the animal data, Walford believed we could increase our life span to 170 or 180 years if we ate like his lab animals. In fact, he found the evidence so compelling, he ate like a mouse himself. At 65, he took in a mere 1,650 calories per day, even though he regularly jog, swim along with pump iron.
If you want to try in which yourself, Walford recommended you first determine your “setpoint,” what you weigh when you’re neither overeating nor undereating. For most people, in which’s what you weighed in your 20s, assuming you weren’t too fat or skinny. Once you’ve established in which, lose weight very gradually, taking as long as four to six years to reduce the idea to 10 to 25 percent below setpoint (rapid weight loss is actually dangerous). Walford weighed 155 pounds through age 20 until 60. Next 5 years i.e. until 65, he shed 20 pounds along with supposed to break the 115-year barrier.
Incidentally, don’t expect to live to 180 by starting dietary restriction right now, said Walford, because in which life span is actually based on beginning the regimen shortly after weaning. In fact, Walford would likely recommend against putting children on the diet because the idea could retard their growth. However, even if begun after adolescence, one could still expect to boost life span to age 140 or thereabouts. (For more on dietary restriction, you can refer Walford’s The 0-Year Diet.)
Lean Dangers: Another pioneer within the field of dietary restriction, Edward J. Masoro, former chairperson of the department of physiology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, had misgivings about the technique. “I have no problem with Roy’s regimen,” he said, “however I don’t think the layman is actually in a position to set his own regimen. People can take the diet to extremes, along with the idea could do great damage.”
On the some other hand, Hart thought in which a lifetime of dietary restriction is actually considerably safer than most short-term diets. “Roy’s diet is actually well thought-out along with well balanced,” he said, “though the idea’s more severe than I think is actually necessary.”
Actually, an unexpected danger was revealed by Hart’s experiments at NCTR, where lab animals are monitored around the clock. At certain times during the day, the mice’s body temperatures drop several degrees, along with, unable to shiver or otherwise respond to cold temperatures because their dieting robs them of the fuel their muscles need, the animals suddenly die. Does in which mean dietary restriction should only be followed by Los Angelinos such as Walford (who favors sabbaticals in India or tropical jungles) along with avoided by those in colder climes? Not definitely, said Hart: “One of the nice things about being human is actually in which you can put on clothes.” He also notes in which restricted animals survive heat stress better than normal rodents do.
Interestingly, the temperature-dropping aspect may turn out to be the most valuable piece of evidence ever uncovered on the subject. Perhaps, NCTR researchers are telling themselves, the idea isn’t the diet however the colder body temperature brought on by the diet in which makes the mice beyond the 36-month limit. Indeed, in which works for some animals – when their body temperatures cool down significantly, their life span increase.
Similarly, Hart’s mice often drop into a torpor state in their sleep, a condition akin to hibernation. If the idea’s torpor in which turns them into frisky centenarians, maybe someday there will be a pill in which will allow humans to cool down at night. Then there will be no more talk about diets – just a pill with your nightcap, a cold bedroom along having a 180-year life span.
Free Radicals: Sharks in a Protoplasmic Sea
the idea was Denham Harman who first suspected the awful truth: Human beings rust. At least in which’s the theory.
Back in 1950s, Harman, a chemist turned physician at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine, discovered in which radiation caused accelerated aging in lab animals along with also created an excess of free radicals in cells. A free radical is actually an unstable part of a molecule with one or more free, unpaired electrons. A free radical must find another molecule to which to attach itself. Gerontologist Alex Comfort likened one to a convention delegate away through his wife. He called the idea “a highly reactive chemical agent in which will combine with anything in which’s around.”
in which may be bad news for the cells. the idea is actually believed in which free radicals trigger a chain reaction in which “rusts” the body just as oxygen rusts out the rocker panels on an Oldsmobile. along with what helps create free radicals? Here’s the bad news: oxygen. In fact, every breath you take ages you, because oxygen along with the everyday process of oxidation involved in metabolism create free radicals along with your ultimate destruction. Among some other things, free radicals supposedly obfuscate genetic information in each cell.
Let’s stop for a warning. The free radical theory is actually the trendiest thing going in research today. however though you may have heard the theory presented as gospel, the idea has not been proven beyond a shadow of a doubt. Many respected researchers believe the idea, however the idea is actually just in which – a belief.
Likely Cure. Free radicals are produced by everyday metabolism, however also by a host of some other elements: some painkillers along with anticancer drugs; burnt material, such as in which found on grilled meats or toast; tobacco smoke; even sunlight. What combats them? Harman was aware in which antioxidants were used in industry to prevent materials such as leather along with rubber through degrading along with to keep butter through turning rancid. right now the quest has begun for antioxidants in which will keep us through turning rancid. Some likely prospects include vitamin B, C along with E, beta carotene, glutathione, selenium, uric acid along with food preservatives such as BHT, BHA along with propyl gallate. One of the ironic things about the free radical theory is actually in which the idea flies within the face of previously held beliefs about what constitutes healthy eating. The oft-reviled cereal preservatives BHT along with BHA, may in fact preserve humans as well as cornflakes. along with people who gave up butter for margarine years ago, in an attempt to avoid cholesterol buildup along with heart disease, are right now being told in which polyunsaturated fats may increase free radical production. Thus the quandary: whether to butter along with risk cardiac arrest, or switch to margarine along with age every cell. (Refer another article “Ode to Cheez Whiz,” for some other dilemmas.)
The most famous antioxidant is actually SOD, superoxide dismutase, a natural enzyme in which neutralizes, or scavenges, free radicals. When SOD was discovered in 1969, the idea helped prove the existence of free radicals in human cells along with boosted the credibility of Harman’s speculations. Further studies by Richard Cutler at the National Institute on Aging showed a positive link between the amount of SOD activity as the idea related to oxygen consumption in a particular species along with its life span, at least in mammals. A gorilla, for instance, lives much longer than a mouse along with has more SOD to protect against a given quantity of free radicals. Cutler then discovered in which the same correlation held true for some other antioxidants. The more vitamin E, beta carotene along with so on in which a mammal had, the longer the idea lived.
Vitamin E: The Natural Antioxidant
So what can one do? Eat several boxes of BHT-enhanced cereal a day? Go back to slathering corn with butter? What antioxidants keep a person fresh? The father of free radicals says to stick with the classics: vitamin E along with C along with beta carotene. Vitamin E is actually Harman’s favorite; he calls the idea “the natural antioxidant. the idea’s in all our membranes.” He cites a study of 5,000 women on the English island of Guernsey: Those with the highest blood levels of vitamin E had the lowest incidence of breast cancer. the idea’s also being tested against senile dementia, Parkinson’s disease along with some other age-related disorders. Harman’s says the idea’s hard to overdose on E.
Before you begin to rustproof yourself, consider some recent experiments in dietary restriction, the only proven method of boosting life span in mammals. Animals on a highly restricted diet increase their longevity dramatically, along with free radical advocates have always assumed in which low food consumption equaled fewer free radicals – a reasonable assumption. however studies by Masoro along with others right now show in which food restriction does not reduce metabolic rate one whit. No one knows, in fact, why the idea works. The free radical connection, if any, has yet to be proven.