Globalisation in addition to Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects in addition to Challenges
- May 27, 2017
- Posted by: marlenedubois
- Category: CPR Training
1. Overview of the Country in addition to Primary Education System:
Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is actually about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is actually 50 years in addition to the mortality rate is actually 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining in addition to Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP in addition to accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; in addition to manufacturing, 8.1% in addition to mining, 1.7%. The school system is actually a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical in addition to Higher Education. Primary School Education is actually compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is actually Kiswahili.
One of the key objectives of the first president J.K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected inside 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring which basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. inside education sector, which goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, in addition to provided free of cost to users to ensure which reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases inside numbers of primary schools in addition to teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school in addition to gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. through 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch in addition to operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), which may refer to the transfer, adaptation, in addition to development of values, knowledge, technology, in addition to behavioral norms across countries in addition to societies in different parts of the planet. The typical phenomena in addition to characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (e.g. internet, world wide e-communication, in addition to transportation), global transfer in addition to interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, in addition to learning areas, international alliances in addition to competitions, international collaboration in addition to exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, in addition to use of international standards in addition to benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) in addition to MoEC (2000).
3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is actually concern, yet most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue which in a globalizing in addition to internalizing world, which is actually not only business in addition to industry which are changing, education, too, is actually caught up in which completely new order. which situation provides each nation a completely new empirical challenge of how to respond to which completely new order. Since which responsibility is actually within a national in addition to which there is actually inequality in terms of economic level in addition to perhaps in cultural variations inside planet, globalization seems to affect others positively in addition to the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces through the outside in addition to are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).
There is actually misinterpretation which globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is actually still persisting within a national state. yet, which has been observed which while globalization continues to restructure the planet economy, there are also powerful ideological packages which reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to enhance access, equity in addition to quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) in addition to Lauglo (1997) observe which decentralization of education is actually one of the global trends inside planet which enable to reform educational leadership in addition to management at different levels. They also argue which Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision producing related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays which the global ideologies in addition to economic improvements are increasingly intertwined inside international institutions which broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral in addition to bilateral development agencies in addition to NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies in addition to transfer them through funds, conferences in addition to additional means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms in addition to to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.
4. The School Leadership
In Tanzania the leadership in addition to management of education systems in addition to processes is actually increasingly seen as one area where improvement can in addition to need to be made in order to ensure which education is actually delivered not only efficiently yet also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out which research in various aspects of leadership in addition to management of education, such as the structures in addition to delivery stems of education; financing in addition to alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing in addition to professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education in addition to poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense in addition to at any level. The nature of out of school factors which may render support to the quality of education e.g. traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.
5. Impact of Globalization
As mentioned above, globalization is actually creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, in addition to behavioral norms in addition to promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, in addition to societies across different countries in addition to cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly which enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, in addition to intellectual assets which are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is actually the mutual support, supplement in addition to benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, in addition to individuals. The third positive impact is actually creation of values in addition to enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing in addition to mutual support to serving local needs in addition to growth. The fourth is actually the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony in addition to acceptance to cultural diversity across countries in addition to regions. The fifth is actually facilitating multi-way communications in addition to interactions, in addition to encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.
The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, in addition to cultural colonization in addition to overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries in addition to rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas in addition to poor areas in different parts of the planet. The first impact is actually increasing the technological gaps in addition to digital divides between advanced countries in addition to less developed countries which are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is actually creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically in addition to politically colonize additional countries globally. Thirdly is actually exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is actually the increase of inequalities in addition to conflicts between areas in addition to cultures. in addition to fifthly is actually the promotion of the dominant cultures in addition to values of some advanced areas in addition to accelerating cultural transplant through advanced areas to less developed areas.
The management in addition to control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro in addition to international issues which may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in which paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out which in general, many people believe, education is actually one of key local factors which can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization through negative to positive in addition to convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals in addition to local community inside inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects yet minimize the negative impacts of globalization is actually a major concern in current educational reform for national in addition to local developments.
6. Globalization of Education in addition to Multiple Theories
The thought of writing which paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories which can be used to conceptualize in addition to practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is actually proposed to address which key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, in addition to theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum in addition to instruction in addition to their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.
The theory of tree assumes which the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values in addition to traditions yet absorb external useful in addition to relevant resources through the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards in addition to outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally in addition to develop globally. The strength of which theory is actually which the local community can maintain in addition to even further develop its traditional values in addition to cultural identity as which grows in addition to interacts with the input of external resources in addition to energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.
The theory of crystal is actually the key of the fostering process to have “local seeds” to crystallize in addition to accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation in addition to demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is actually to accumulate global knowledge around some “local seeds” which may be to exist local demands in addition to values to be fulfilled in these years. According to which theory, the design of curriculum in addition to instruction is actually to identify the core local needs in addition to values as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge in addition to resources for education. The expected educational outcome is actually to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge in addition to can act locally in addition to think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs in addition to the external knowledge to be absorbed in addition to accumulated inside development of local community in addition to individuals.
The theory of birdcage is actually about how to avoid the overwhelming in addition to dominating global influences on the nation or local community. which theory contends which the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge in addition to resources yet at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments in addition to related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, which is actually necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries in addition to social norms for curriculum design such which all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting through the exposure of wide global knowledge in addition to inputs. The expected educational outcome is actually to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education in addition to avoid any loss of local identity in addition to concerns during globalization or international exposure.
The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives in addition to reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions in addition to structures in country of periphery in addition to replace them with completely new ideas borrowed through core countries. which theory emphasizes on identifying in addition to transplanting the better key elements through the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components inside local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local in addition to global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements through them. The expected educational outcome is actually to develop a person with locally in addition to globally mixed elements, who can act in addition to think with mixed local in addition to global knowledge. The strength of which theory is actually its openness for any rational investigation in addition to transplant of valid knowledge in addition to elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. which can provide an efficient way to learn in addition to improve the existing local practices in addition to developments.
The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. which theory assumes which which is actually a faster in addition to easier way to digest in addition to absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual in addition to local developments, than to create their own local knowledge through the beginning. through which theory, the curriculum in addition to instruction should aim at enabling students to identify in addition to learn what global knowledge is actually valuable in addition to necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms which can feed the needs of individuals in addition to their growth. The expected educational outcome is actually to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act in addition to think dependently of relevant global knowledge in addition to wisdom. Strengths of the theory is actually for some little countries, easily digest in addition to absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge through the beginning. The roots for growth in addition to development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.
The theory of amoeba is actually about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment in addition to the economic survival in serious international competitions. which theory considers which fostering local knowledge is actually only a process to fully use in addition to accumulate global knowledge inside local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is actually genuinely local or the local values can be preserved is actually not a major concern. According to which theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives in addition to knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit through global knowledge in addition to become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook in addition to apply global knowledge locally in addition to globally is actually crucial in education. in addition to, cultural burdens in addition to local values can be minimized inside design of curriculum in addition to instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is actually to develop a flexible in addition to open person without any local identity, who can act in addition to think globally in addition to fluidly. The strengths of which theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values in addition to cultural identity inside country in addition to the local community will potentially lose its direction in addition to social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.
Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic in addition to cultural contexts in addition to therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories through the typology in globalized education may be different through the additional. To a great extent, which is actually difficult to say one is actually better than additional even though the theories of tree, birdcage in addition to crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba in addition to fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, which typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers in addition to educators to conceptualize in addition to formulate their strategies in addition to practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)
7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania
During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on “Ujamaa” (African socialism) in addition to self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production in addition to provision of goods in addition to services by the state in addition to the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization in addition to participation highlighted the “Ujamaa” ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. which was resolved which the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by which time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former in addition to first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring which the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind which move was essentially which, as much as education was a right to each in addition to every citizen, a government which is actually committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society cannot segregate in addition to discriminate her people inside provision of education, especially at the basic level.
7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education
In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education in addition to propose necessary improvements to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 in addition to the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to which paper were the establishment of the Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of completely new curriculum packages at primary, secondary in addition to teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education (FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; in addition to the expansion of secondary education.
7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania
The second phase government of Tanzania spanning through 1985 to 1995, was characterized by completely new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling in addition to cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE in addition to additional social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching/learning materials in addition to infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing inside provision of social services like education in addition to health hit most the poorest of the poor. which decrease in government support inside provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given which most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system in addition to recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.
The report of which task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration inside formulation of the Tanzania Education in addition to Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies in addition to reforms inside 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is actually way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is actually on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation in addition to access level have declined to the point which attainment of UPE is actually Yet again an issue in itself. additional developments in addition to trends indicate a decline inside quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey in addition to Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is actually being raised about school quality in addition to relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro in addition to Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).
7.3. Outcomes of UPE
According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis in addition to discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. which is actually based on the total number of completely new entrants inside first grade regardless of age. which number is actually in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age in addition to the net intake rate based on the number of completely new entrants inside first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision producing events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions in addition to repetitions.
7.3.1. Access to Primary Education
The absolute numbers of completely new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of completely new entrants increased through around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 in addition to to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% inside 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 in addition to rise up to 77% in 2000. which level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is actually marked by wide variations in both apparent in addition to net intake rates-between urban in addition to rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact which many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.
7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education
The regression inside gross in addition to net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary in addition to vocational levels; in addition to, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania’s education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 in addition to, inside subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross/net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960’s in addition to early 1970s’, grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (ibid)
7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education
The input/output ratio shows which which takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition in addition to high failure rate which is actually pronounced at standard four where a competency/mastery examination is actually administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.
7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania
The third phase government spanning the period through 1995 to date, intends to address both income in addition to non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision in addition to consumption of better social services. In order to address these income in addition to non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy in addition to the attainment of a level of tertiary education in addition to training commensurate using a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in which period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); in addition to (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).
8. Prospects in addition to Challenges of Primary of Education Sector
Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth in addition to poverty reduction. Several policies in addition to structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education in addition to Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science in addition to Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education in addition to Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 in addition to National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for initially a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. which called for pooling together of resources (human, financial in addition to materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring in addition to evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.
Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified in addition to expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the completely new competency based curriculum in addition to learning styles, in addition to the absence of an assessment in addition to examination regime able to reinforce the completely new approaches in addition to reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand in addition to can do. At secondary level there is actually a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is actually the funding gap, yet the government is actually calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. numerous systemic improvements are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management in addition to mainstreaming of ongoing project in addition to programmes. The various measures in addition to interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated in addition to unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence in addition to synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).
9. Education in addition to School Leadership in Tanzania in addition to the Impacts
Education in addition to leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained inside stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained in addition to more decentralized inside implementation of the PEDP through the year 2000 to date. which paper is actually also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies which influence the subjectivity of education improvements. which is actually changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004:1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as “the completely new managerial responsibilities”. These responsibilities are focused to enhance accountability, equity in addition to quality in education which are global agenda, because which is actually through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In which case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is actually due to the implementation of decentralization of both power in addition to fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership today has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than which was before decentralization. which also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.
10. Prospects in addition to Challenges of School Leadership
The decentralization of both power in addition to funds through the central level to the low level of education such as school in addition to community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation in addition to increased efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current improvements on school leadership. There is actually increased accountability, capacity building in addition to educational access to the current improvements on school leadership. which is actually viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools inside country. Makule (2008) in her study found out which the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report in addition to one year report. In each report there is actually a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities which takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds in addition to the information about attendance both teacher in addition to students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, in addition to school achievement in addition to problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training in addition to workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania
Like all countries, Tanzania is actually bracing itself for a completely new century in every respect. The dawn of the completely new millennium brings in completely new improvements in addition to challenges of all sectors. The Education in addition to Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. which is actually, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, inside case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence in addition to marginalisation therefore human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access in addition to equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building in addition to the HIV/aids challenge.
There are all 5 types of local knowledge in addition to wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic in addition to technical knowledge, human in addition to social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, in addition to educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, in addition to the society. Although globalisation is actually linked to numerous technological in addition to additional improvements which have helped to link the planet more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A “free market” dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom in addition to role of markets, in addition to of the actors in those markets, inside organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates which which is actually dogma through which which is actually inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is actually an all too convenient excuse in addition to explanation for anti-social policies in addition to actions including education which undermine progress in addition to break down community. Globalisation as we know which has profound social in addition to political implications. which can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the planet’s population, severe problems of unemployment, in addition to growing wage in addition to income disparities. which makes which more in addition to more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. which also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development in addition to economic policy.