Constitutional Development in Sierra Leone – The Blackhall Experience
- January 5, 2017
- Posted by: marlenedubois
- Category: CPR Training
The Colony of Sierra Leone
Henry Smeathman, the botanist, recommended Sierra Leone as the most advantageous place for the establishment of a settlement.1 Established as a Crown Colony in 1808, the Sierra Leone peninsula as well as also the areas directly to the south of of which were governed by a Governor-in-Council who combined both Executive as well as also Legislative authority. This kind of system prevailed until 1863 when the Executive as well as also Legislative functions were divided between an Executive Council as well as also a Legislative Council. Though the completely new councils marked a step away coming from the earlier form of colonial autocracy, of which can be argued of which they were not intended as a move towards self-government.2 The Colony of Sierra Leone then was inspired by the humanitarian opposition to the institution of slavery as well as also nurtured by the British determination to end the Slave Trade. By the middle of the eighteen century, the system of slavery was not too well-known with the English. On several occasions, public attention was drawn to the question as to whether a slave should become free after arriving on English soil. The philanthropist Granville Sharp struck an effective blow in 1772 when “a test case was provided within the case of a slave named James Somerset, who had been brought to England coming from Jamaica by his master as well as also had subsequently run away coming from him”3. The principles laid by Lord Chief Justice Mansfield of the English High Court within the case Somerset v. Stewart implied of which any slave setting foot in England should be deemed a freeman. He noted of which “the state of slavery… can be incapable of being introduced on any reasons…I cannot say This kind of can be allowed or approved by the law of England as well as also therefore the black man must be discharged”.4 This kind of famous Mansfield Decision stimulated the Christian philanthropy of men like Sharp as well as also Wilberforce.
The consequence of This kind of judgement was the liberation of hundreds of slaves living in England. During the American War of Independence (1776-1983), the British encouraged slaves in America to desert their masters to join the British army in return for freedom as well as also land. After the War – which Britain lost- some of these slaves went to Nova Scotia (Canada) as well as also some to London. In London, these former slaves were beset with many problems. Their freedom definitely did not mean equality with British subjects. Often destitute, most of these freed slaves wandered about the streets of England distressing the kindhearted as well as also men of property. They posed an awkward social problem. The victor as well as also hero of the Somerset case, Granville Sharp, maintained a growing number of these slaves collectively referred to as the Black Poor. of which did not take long for Granville Sharp to realize of which the problem was more than private charity would certainly cope with. As a remedial agency, a considerable number of philanthropists formed a Committee for relieving the Black Poor in 1986 known as the Committee of the Black Poor. This kind of Committee was chaired by Jonas Hanway. of which was during This kind of period of uncertainty of which a certain individual Dr. Henry Smeathman, alias flycatcher, who had lived for about three years within the vicinity of Sierra Leone strongly proposed the area as a suitable settlement. In 1785, This kind of botanist certified Sierra Leone unhealthy for the establishment of a concrete settlement. However, in February 1786, he declared the area suitable for human habitation, crop production as well as also cattle rearing. His vision for the settlement was principally economic as well as also commercial. Granville Sharp, the leading abolitionist, Jonas Hanway, John as well as also Thomas Clarkson (as well as also subsequently Thomas Fowell Buxton) resorted to a scheme of colonialization. Inadequate finances prevented them coming from acting along. They appealed to the British government for assistance which the latter willingly gave since of which wanted to end the problems posed by the Black Poor.
The Colony of Sierra Leone (which started off on 11th May, 1787), began, not as a Colony of Britain, nevertheless rather, as a fully independent colony with an African governor, Richard Weaver. Needless to state, This kind of was the dawn or advent of a brand completely new experiment within the relationship between the Africans as well as also the Europeans. This kind of experiment was a reverse drive of the so-called African Diaspora for “instead of the old ‘middle passage’ traffic when negroes were taken coming from Africa as well as also sold into slavery within the markets of Europe as well as also the completely new World, the completely new ‘middle passage’ traffic of these years consisted in Negroes doing the return journey coming from Europe as well as also the completely new World, not for purposes of slavery, nevertheless of which they might possess the opportunity of living their lives as freemen on their own native continent”.5 This kind of settlement was no doubt a tiny one nevertheless had nearly all the essentials of a state. This kind of Governor as well as also the Common Council might have been dubbed President as well as also Parliament respectively. The settlement was administered under the old English system of frankpledge whereby the colony was divided into tithings as well as also hundreds. Tithingmen as well as also Hundredors (who were duly elected representatives) made rules for the Great government of the settlement. These rules may be called laws. In effect, there existed an independent political community composed of free as well as also independent blackmen (as well as also women).6 Such a brief discussion reminds one of the ancient Greek city state which practised democracy, though differently. Simply defined, “democracy in Africa or anywhere else, can be government by the people”7. As Mr. Guy Clutton-Brock – writing about a typical African village community – put of which, “the elders sit under the big tree as well as also talk until they agree”8. This kind of form of democracy (similar to of which practiced by the City States of Ancient Greece) was slightly different coming from of which practiced by the settlers in Sierra Leone. within the latter, the right of the settlers to make political decisions was not exercised directly nevertheless “through representatives chosen by as well as also responsible to them, known as representative democracy”9. The early constitution of Sierra Leone has its importance as the first instance in modern history of a self-governing colonial community of non-European population, where colour was no disqualification as well as also negro freedom were allowed the political as well as also civil rights of Europeans. As hundredors as well as also tithingmen the black settlers of Sierra Leone had fulfilled administrative duties of which had developed into legislative duties; as jurymen they had shown judgement as well as also intelligence of which won the praise of Europeans.”10 The constitutional right or privilege to elect representatives was only a respite.
The Sierra Leone Company Act of 1790 which transformed the St. George’s Bay Company into the Sierra Leone Company using a Royal Charter signaled the start of a marathon period of settler suppression as well as also entailment of independence. Porter outlines four major developments between 1807 as well as also 1808 which not only altered by reshaped as well as also restructured the history of the Colony of Sierra Leone. First, the Slave Trade was abolished in 1807 by the British Parliament. Second, the African Institution (mainly composed of members of the Sierra Leone Company) was formed for the physical regeneration of Africa. The members hoped or rather attempted through This kind of African Institution to continue exercising their interest as well as also influence within the Colony. Third, partly as a result of the bankruptcy of the exhausted Sierra Leone Company as well as also partly to suppress the inhuman Atlantic Traffic, a Crown Colony was established over Sierra Leone on 1st January 1808. Fourth, the Order in Council of 16th March, 1808 established a Vice-Admiralty Court in Sierra Leone for trying both captured slaves as well as also their owners.11 A catastrophic implication of these developments was the abrogation of the legal jurisdiction of the settlers. They lost all rights of participation as well as also representation. Since 1863 “although(ugh) the size of the Legislative Council gradually increased, its essential features remained unchanged.”12 of which would certainly, therefore, not be farfetched to briefly look at the improvements within the state of the colony as well as also the Blackhall Constitution for “This kind of structure did not change much until 1924….”13 The Colony of Sierra Leone was partly established in 1978 to “secure a home on the continent of Africa for natives of Africa as well as also their descendants who for one reason or another, primarily, because of slavery as well as also the Slave Trade, had left their native shores as well as also were perforce living abroad.”14 One could identify four groups of settlers within the Colony of Sierra Leone. The first was the Black Poor who arrived in 1787. The second group of settlers, the Nova Scotians, arrived in 1792. The next two groups of settlers, the Maroons as well as also Liberated Africans/Recaptives, arrived within the nineteenth century, the former in 1800 as well as also the latter coming from 1808 onwards. Relations between as well as also among these various groups of settlers were initially hostile as well as also the Freetown community or society was hierarchically stratified. There was of which recognized social distance between the Settlers as well as also the Liberated Africans. With time however, Freetown became a melting pot of cultures. Faced with the western cultural patterns as interpreted by the completely new World Settlers (of which can be the Nova Scotians predominantly), which patterns were reinforced by the patronage as well as also favour of the European administration as well as also some other ancillary agencies like the missionary societies, the Liberated Africans, as the fourth group of immigrants came to be known “began to copy these patterns which soon became the high prestige for all groups within the territory.”15 This kind of ‘completely new’ land enabled settlers to mould themselves as well as also the result was a completely new nation using a distinct as well as also unique identity. Religion, education as well as also trade were three factors which aided the transformation of the lives of the settlers whose descendants were designated the Krios. Religion as well as also education, according to Porter were “indicators of status within the Freetown society as well as also as avenues by which an individual or family, properly motivated, can move vertically within the stratification ladder.”16 of which was therefore common by 1850 to see descendants of settlers as well as also Liberated Africans (Krios) within the registers of the C.M.S. (at This kind of point Sierra Leone) Grammar School (1845) as well as also the Female Insituttion (1849), later known as the Annie Walsh Memorial School. As families became prosperous, they moved coming from the independent chapels to the big churches. The role or importance of education for instance must not be underestimated. of which opened the eyes of the Krios.
The 1850s ushered in a completely new era of political activity. There was a revolution in ideas as a result of the emergence of the completely new elite. Education “made men more ready when the need arose to question the whole foundation of the old order.”17 nevertheless what was This kind of old order? This kind of was the political or constitutional arrangement within the Colony. Supreme power – legislative, executive as well as also judicial – rested with the Governors who were all whitemen. Her Majesty would certainly not intervene in colonial affairs without the advice of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, or to the Cabinet. These Colonial governors were responsible not to the people they governed, nevertheless to the Queen, the British Parliament or the British electorate.
Events leading to the 1863 Constitution
Why were the Krios not adequately represented within the Council which governed the Colony? As Wyse caustically realized, “the Krios contributed to the development of politics in West Africa. Education, the Christian religion as well as also association with the white man equipped the Krios with the necessary tools to understand European government as well as also western political ideology, as well as also to use their options, restricted as they undoubtedly were, to challenge the European ruling caste system”.18 The Krio society was aware of the reasons behind the establishment of Granville Town in 1787. Granville Sharp intended the settlement to be more than a receptacle for indigent blacks. He dreamt of a free settlement. The Krios at This kind of point wished for a return of the period when ancestors enjoyed free black rule. They perceived their initial role of agents within the transport of western civilization as well as also Christianity with utmost pride. Krios, the educated class, were disappointed by British unwillingness to introduce democratic government into the Colony, though the British themselves enjoyed democracy at home. They became all the more interested when they compared what was happening within the Colony with what was happening in Liberia, where the people governed themselves. They started off to attack the Crown Colony system of government which was imposed on them.19 some other developments aggravated the desire of the educated elite within the Colony of Sierra Leone to question the entire foundation of the old system of colonial administration. Sierra Leone produced the first group of western educated elite in British West Africa as well as also was fulfilling the dream of Governor Charles McCarthy (1814-1824). She acted as a base for the spread of religion, civilization as well as also western education in West Africa.
Fourah Bay College (1827) served British West Africa as well as also was the only university within the region until the turn of the century. of which was therefore very painful to the Krios of which the Colony of Sierra Leone ran a much slower constitutional race than the some other British West African countries which had won more ‘advanced’ constitutions which provided for separate Legislative as well as also Executive Councils. When the Gambia was separated coming from Sierra Leone in 1843, an Executive as well as also a Legislative Council were constituted there as well as also the business community, dominated by a few European firms, given representation. within the Gold Coast too, Executive as well as also Legislative Councils were set up in 1850. The Liberian Republic was self governing. nevertheless the constitution of Sierra Leone remained, with only smaller amendment, what of which had been in 1821. Its citizens were taxed nevertheless still unrepresented. Deprived even of the communal voice of a Grand Jury, they could still only present their views in petitions.20 The settlers within the colony had no recognized political party within the 1850s to question the Constitution of 1808 which was obsolete within the face of recent social development. However, the absence of a political party was a low barrier which did not frustrate the efforts of the settlers. As Porter observed, “as the Colony expanded, many became discontented with the form of government in which they had no share. In 1850, the Rev. E.T. Poole, Colonial Chaplain, published a book in which he protested against the Colony being ruled by a secret council in which the people were not represented at all”21. This kind of was however an individual pressure. In 1853, a powerful organization, the Sierra Leone Committee of Correspondence was formed by a West Indian, Mr. Lenaghan to advocate for the legal as well as also constitutional privilege of representation. This kind of local body of businessmen was later superseded by the more powerful or influential Mercantile Association. of which can be nevertheless fitting at This kind of point to pay tribute or briefly comment on the Mercantile Association or rather the role of the Merchant elite as the articulates of the middle-class. Trade was to become an instrument of moral upliftment. Largely through the efforts of Governor Charles McCarthy as well as also the Settlers themselves, there was a remarkable change within the standard of living of the latter. By forming bidding groups as well as also some other co-operative societies, the Settlers within the Colony were able to make huge profits. of which soon became clear of which a merchant elite was developing. An organization designed to represent the interests of the growing mercantile community, the Mercantile Association, was formed by a group of successful merchants in 1851.
The Mercantile Association played a very important role in political development within the Colony within the 1850s. Whereas writers like Edmund Burke believed of which political authority derives coming from tradition, others like James Harrington have argued of which political authority was the outgrowth of economic order. In some other words, political power follows economic power. If anything, there can be some semblance of truth in Harrington’s proposition. With economic power, the Mercantile Association (a multiracial organization) became a political mouthpiece of the people as of which frequently petitioned the colonial administration. (As will be seen later, This kind of Association was so important of which one of the appointments to the Legislative Council of 1863 was made with its consultation). The Mercantile Association (which had some professionals) was not only numerically as well as also lamentably stronger than the Committee of Correspondence nevertheless comprised very influential black as well as also white settlers who actually controlled a substantial part of the economy. Irrespective of This kind of composition, This kind of all-powerful Association in 1958 “petitioned against abuses over taxes as well as also duties as well as also asked for a completely new constitution for Sierra Leone.”22 The Association also asked for an elected assembly. The Settlers of the Colony of Sierra Leone also had international support. The Aborigines Protection Society as well as also the Anti Slavery Society in England were two bodies which questioned the British House of Lords for maladministration within the Colony of Sierra Leone. One would certainly be legitimately charged with academic treason for failing to acknowledge the role of the Press during This kind of period. On a more general note, the African-owned newspaper during the colonial period had several general characteristics. First, of which rivaled the colonial administration. of which was the most effective weapon for airing long-felt political grievances as well as also influencing the tide of events within the absence of a democratically elected government. Second, the Press was both the interpreter of the ideals as well as also aspirations of the people as well as the custodian, guardian as well as also protector of their rights as well as also liberties. On a more particular note, the Press in Sierra Leone during the 1840s as well as also 1850s was far coming from ineffective. of which can be sometimes argued of which newspapers within the tail end of the nineteenth as well as also early twentieth centuries were of a better quality than those of the 1840s as well as also 1850s. of which notwithstanding, newspapers within the 1840s as well as also 1850s were highly critical of the colonial administration. One such newspaper which attacked deeply-felt political grievances, the direct rule of the unrepresentative council (in which the powers of the governor were almost absolute) as well as also its indirect power of patronage was the completely new Era.
In May 1855, William Drape, a West Indian, established the very first newspaper on African soil. This kind of weekly publication had been expressly founded to reflect local opinion. Many eventually saw the paper as “a rally point for anti-government forces…”23 of which was clear by 1863 of which the 1808 Constitution was outmoded as far as development was concerned. of which can be true of which with pressure only fools as well as also gods do not change. The colonial government realized of which the wind of change had been transformed into a hurricane blowing over the Colony of Sierra Leone. The incumbent governor, Governor Hill, was very obstinate. The Settlers needed a governor who was considerable enough. They found such a man in Governor Blackhall, an Irish landowner who was appointed in 1863. As Fyfe observed, This kind of gentleman “was ready to reverse, as bidden, his predecessor’s bellicose policy, as well as also to accept a completely new legislature.”24
The 1863 Constitution
Legislation was being passed within the Colony of Sierra Leone to prepare the way for the formal introduction of the Blackhall Constitution. The pressures of the Settlers within the Colony as well as also their supporters in Britain for further constitutional advance were not in vain since the British or colonial government “acceded to the demands for constitutional change as well as also introduced a Charter dated 27th May, 1863 together with Royal Instructions dated 30th May, 1863 following a completely new constitution for the Colony of Sierra Leone.”25 On 26th July, 1863, Governor Major Samuel Wensley Blackhall issued the following proclamation, “I do hereby publicly proclaim the said Charter of Justice to be in full force as well as also effect coming from This kind of date.”26 The Charter as well as also the Royal Instructions which brought the Blackhall Constitution into being revoked the Charter of 1799. In This kind of novel constitution, “the Governor’s Council was abolished as well as also in its place a Legislative as well as also an Executive Council were set up.”27 of which must be noted of which constitutional history proper commenced in Sierra Leone in 1863.
Perhaps, of which would certainly not be farfetched to say of which This kind of was the beginning of our modern House of Representatives or better still Parliament. Looking closely at the details, the Executive Council was composed entirely of the official members, of which can be to say, those forming the Legislative Council, with the governor’s appointees. Members of the Executive Council therefore were H.E. the Governor (Major S.W. Blackhall), The Chief Justice (John Carr), The Colonial Secretary (George Nicol), The Queen’s Advocate (H.J. Huggins), The Officer Commanding Troops (Colonel Hughes).28 The Legislative Council consisted of the governor (who bore the official title of Governor as well as also Commander in Chief), the official members of the Executive Council as well as also “such some other person or persons nominated as well as also appointed to serve on the Council”29. The official members were compelled to support the policies of the Governor. As Martin Wight put of which, an official member “could not be continued within the office as well as also seat if his conscience should not permit him to give the Crown such a measure of support as may be necessary to enable the governor to carry on the business of government within the Legislative.”30
The Council made provisions for only two appointed unofficial members. These were chosen coming from among the population. In his selection, the governor was required to take into consideration “not only to those who are most likely to support the government nevertheless those who will be taken to represent as well as also will inform you of the wishes of the more intelligent portion of the community… as well as also adopt the advice of any constituted body of a more or less well-known kind.”31 Two conclusions could be drawn or derived coming from the above quotation. First, the unofficial members were nominated to represent public opinion as well as also second, by seeking to know the wishes of the intelligent portion of the community as well as also the advice of any well-known body, the government used the unofficial members to bring within the articulate section of the community. Thus, as Peterson observed, “when Governor Blackhall revived the Mercantile Association in 1863 to elect an unofficial member for the newly instituted Legislative Council for Sierra Leone, of which elected the leading African merchant in Freetown, John Ezzidio. As a member of the Legislative Council, Ezzidio remained a representative of the commercial community.32 The some other unofficial member was the influential Charles Heddle who had sat on the former Governor’s Council for many years. of which was clear of which the Mercantile Association was still influential. Revived temporarily in 1863, the Mercantile Association was reconstituted in 1864 as the Chamber of Commerce. After 1863, although of which was “excluded coming from constitutional function, the Chamber still provided a forum where grievances could be ventilated as well as also reforms suggested.”33 A critical examination or review of the composition as well as also functions of the Councils established by the 1863 Constitution clearly reveals barriers to their development as truly representative institutions. A thorough examination of the Blackhall Constitution puts one in a better position to understand the Slater Constitution. The powers of the governor for instance were extraordinary. As President of both Councils, he was to preside over meetings as well as also propose the agenda for discussion. Markin Kilson forces one to believe of which “evidence of the prevalence of a democratic heritage in British West African colonies was apparent at the very start of the constitutional development.”34 Marcus Jones’ brilliant summary of the governor’s powers for instance belies Kilson’s assertion of which “the governor had the right to nominate as well as also appoint whomsoever he pleased…He could summon, adjourn, prorogue or dissolve the Council at will. He was the undisputed ruler, subject only to directions coming from the home government.”35 Hargreaves discussed at length the British system of election as well as also representation in her colonies. He concluded the section by stating of which though Ezzidio’s election was hardly a democratic one, of which was in no way an arbitrary choice nevertheless further realistically noted of which “such systems were clearly unsatisfactory to people who felt they had a right to choose their own representatives as well as also to decide how they would certainly be governed.”36 Wyse pierced the heart of the matter when he observed of which Ezzidio’s election could in no way be seen as a precedent for nascent political independence. Although the consent of the Legislative Council was necessary to pass legislation as well as also the annual estimates, of which consent was always assured by the official majority. If one critically assesses the Executive Council Minutes book of 20th July, 1863 Constitution was merely a ludicrous document. According to A.Dike, Clerk of the Executive Council, “His Excellency took the advice of his Council on the estimates for 1864… The Board having suggested some alterations approved of as well as also recommended of which the same be submitted to the Legislative Council at its sitting.”37 This kind of can be all absurd as the Governor can be always assured of an official majority within the Legislative Council. nevertheless what sort of democracy was This kind of? of which can be true of which the 1863 Constitution provided a forum for the discussion of political issues nevertheless “ironically the Constitution marked the beginning of a declining phase within the political fortunes of Sierra Leone”38.
The fact of which the Legislative Council on some occasions influenced colonial government policy did not mean of which of which was very effective. Although John Ezzidio had a list of distinguished successors, one must not forget of which whatever the situation, a colonial government represented a set of or autocratic interests. Although the Legislative Council had the right to advice the governor, the latter was not bound to accept such advice. Perhaps a fair description of the Constitution was of which rendered by Blyden. As he observed, “a note worthy feature of the 1863 Constitution was the extension of the privilege of unofficial representation on the Legislative Council to the African settler population.”39 One must note well the use of the word privilege which aptly described the situation. nevertheless why not right? Indeed the colonial government was not yet ready to concede representation. Some erroneously believe This kind of Constitution was democratic because of the African representation. Indeed, of which can be highly indubitable of which “This kind of development could hardly be regarded as the beginning of true representative government in Sierra Leone since the British government insisted of which Ezzidio was not a delegate nevertheless a nominee of the merchants, removable at the Queen’s pleasure as well as also not at the pleasure of the merchants.”40 This kind of ‘completely new’ arrangement therefore did not foreshadow any independent political community. 1863 left the Settlers in a disillusioned state. The major defects of the judicial system of which existed before This kind of period were preserved. One dismisses the choruses of praise which suggested of which of which was a welcome as well as also advanced measure as misleadingly over simplistic since of which lamentably failed to meet the demands, aspirations as well as also expectations of the Settlers. As Porter put of which, “the people were clearly ready for a change as well as also This kind of was (only) partially met in 1863….”41 of which was suggested of which the Colony would certainly have profited coming from the experience gained by the application coming from as well as also adaptation of these institutional processes of a liberal democracy which the Constitution of 1863 as well as also its implementative devices introduced. within the light of the recommendations made by a Parliamentary Committee which investigated the conditions of the West African settlements within two years of the 1863 Constitution in Sierra Leone, the verdict appears doubtful.42
of which can be indeed a truism of which the 1963 Constitution marked an inch away coming from previous forms of colonial autocracy. At the same time, of which can be also incontrovertible of which This kind of Blackhall Constitution was “essentially a device for the more efficient government of an expanding colony, rather than a concession to the principle of representation.”43
1. Arthur Porter, Creoledom, (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), p.10
2. Martin Kilson, Political change in a West African State, (Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1966),p.98
3. T.N. Goddard, The handbook of Sierra Leone, (London: Grant Richards Ltd, 1925), p.20
4. W.M. Macmillan, The road to self rule, (London: Faber & Faber, 1959), p.51
5. Porter, op.cit., p.19
6. W.S. Marcus Jones, “Legal development as well as also constitutional change in Sierra Leone, 1787-1971,
unpublished manuscript”, p.30
7. Rupert Emerson, The political awakening of Africa, (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1975), p.122
9. The completely new Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol.4, s.v. “Democracy”, p.5.
10. Kilson, op.cit., p.98
11. Porter, op.cit., pp.35-36
12. Christopher Allen, “Constitutional change in Sierra Leone, 1863-1967”, p.1
14. Porter, op.cit., p.10
15. Ibid., p.12
16. Porter, op.cit., p.78
17. David Thomson, Europe since Napoleon, (Norfolk: Lowe as well as also Brydone Printers Limited, 1957), p.4
18. A.J.G. Wyse: cited in Joseph E. Harris, Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora, (Washington: Washington University Press, 1982), p.327
19. J.D. Omer Cooper et. al., The Growth of African Civilization, Vol. 1, (Longman: Longman Group Limited, 1968), p.154
20. Christopher Fyfe, A history of Sierra Leone, (London: Oxford University Press, 1962), pp.281-282
21. Porter, op.cit., p.56
22. Jones, op.cit., p.214
23. Frederick J.A. Omu, cited in J.D. Fage, J.R. Gray as well as also R.A. Oliver, eds. Journal of African History, Vol.
IX, No.2, 1968
24. Fyfe, op.cit., p.318
25. Jones, op.cit., p.11
26. Ibid., p.10
27. Cecil M. Fyle, The history of Sierra Leone, (London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1981), p.75
28. Jones, op.cit., p.221ff
29. Blyden, op.cit., p.37
30. Martin Wight, The development of the Legislative Council (1806-1945), (London: Faber as well as also Faber, 1945), p.109
31. Jones, op.cit., p.214
32. John E. Peterson, Province of freedom, (Evanston: North Western University Press, 1969), p.295
33. Fyfe, op.cit., p.331
34. Wilson, op.cit., p.4
35. Jones, op.cit., p.213
36. J.D. Hargreaves, “Problems of constitutional development in West Africa”, Publication 1, Department of Extra Mural Studies
37. Executive Council Minutes (20th July 1863-7th November 1870), Sierra Leone Public Archives
38. W.S. Marcus-Jones, “The protection of fundamental rights as well as also freedom of the individual in Sierra Leone”, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Yale (n.d.), p.31
39. Blyden, op.cit., p.42
40. Gershon Collier, Sierra Leone: Experiment in democracy in an African nation, (completely new York: completely new York University Press, 1970), p.7
41. Porter, op.cit., p.123
42. Blyden, op.cit., p.43
43. Collier, op.cit., p.7