Anal Fissure as well as Fistula
- June 6, 2017
- Posted by: marlenedubois
- Category: Home Health Aide Training
What are anal fissures as well as fistulas?
An anal fissure is actually a tear inside the lining of the anus or the skin around that will. An anal fistula is actually an abnormal track or channel coming from the anus that will opens onto the skin surrounding the anus.
What causes anal fissures as well as fistulas as well as who is actually at risk?
Frequently, no cause is actually found for the development of an anal fissure. The most commonly associated condition is actually constipation.
Anal fistulas are associated with several conditions that will result in inflammation of the digestive tract. These include ulcerative colitis as well as Crohn’s disease (see separate Factsheet). More commonly, however, fistulas are caused by infection as well as abscess (collection of pus) in one of the glands near to the anus. Multiple anal fissures may also be associated with these conditions.
What are the common symptoms as well as complications of anal fissures as well as fistulas? Sudden as well as severe pain in or around the anus is actually the characteristic symptom of an anal fissure. The pain often occurs during or shortly after the passage of a hard stool, although may also occur spontaneously.
After that will, the pain occurs at This particular point as well as then as well as is actually severe, sharp as well as often shooting in nature; that will is actually often made worse by a bowel movement. As a result, sufferers often avoid opening their bowels, which makes the constipation worse as well as prevents the fissure coming from healing. The condition is actually frequently associated with something called a ‘sentinel pile’. This particular pile, or haemorrhoid, is actually a tiny vein that will has dropped down coming from inside the anus to lie outside. that will may bleed coming from time to time as well as a streak of bright red blood on the toilet paper may be seen.
Anal fistula is actually most commonly associated with an abscess near the anus, which gives rise to pain in or around the anus that will may be dull as well as throbbing. The abscess releases pus, which may be blood-stained as well as soil the underclothes. The formation of a fistula results inside the often continuous seepage of pus or sometimes a more thin as well as watery fluid, again often streaked with blood, coming from the anus. If the underlying abscess is actually large enough that will may cause a fever as well as a feeling of being generally unwell.
If a fistula has been caused by an inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, various other symptoms of the disease may be present. These may include diarrhea, abdominal pains, fever, loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea as well as vomiting.
What is actually the treatment for anal fissures as well as fistulas?
Self-care action plan
Avoiding constipation by eating a diet rich in fibre (including plenty of fruit as well as vegetables) helps to prevent anal fissures coming from occurring. Such a diet also helps the healing process.
If diet alone is actually insufficient to control constipation, several medicines can be used, many of which are available as over-the-counter preparations coming from a pharmacist with no need for a prescription. These include lactulose, taken as a liquid, as well as tablets such as senna. Creams or ointments that will contain pain-killing local anaesthetic agents are very useful at relieving the pain of anal fissures. Relief of the pain reduces the spasm inside the muscles of the anus, which often prevents the fissure coming from healing.
If all the above measures fail, a variety of operations is actually available for the treatment of anal fissures. These include stretching of the anus, which is actually carried out under general anaesthetic (during which you will be asleep) as well as although normally performed as a day case, may require you to stay in hospital overnight. This particular procedure results in temporary weakening of the muscles around the anus, relieving the spasm as well as allowing healing to occur. Alternatively, a ‘sphincterotomy’ may be performed. This particular, again, is actually carried out under a general anaesthetic as well as involves cutting some of the muscle fibres around the anus. A chronic (long-term) fissure that will does not respond to the above treatments often has to be cut out as well as then sewn up with stitches.
If an abscess is actually the cause of an anal fistula, that will can only be treated surgically. The operation involves cutting into the abscess as well as draining the pus. If a fistula is actually present that will will also need to be tackled surgically. This particular operation involves cutting into the fistula as well as ‘laying that will open’ to allow healing to occur. This particular will involve a stay in hospital.
More rarely, when the fistula is actually caused by an associated inflammatory disease of the bowel, the particular disease often also requires specific treatment. This particular may involve taking steroid tablets to reduce the inflammation although if severe, surgery may also be required.
If you do have an operation for an anal fissure or fistula, you will be given instructions as to what to do when you get home. This particular is actually likely to include information about the importance of having a daily bath, how to avoid constipation, as well as when you should return to the doctor for a follow-up.
Relaxation therapy, the Alexander technique, yoga as well as tai-chi may help to relieve the stress as well as the underlying increase in muscle tension associated with the pain of an anal fissure, as well as may help to promote healing. These techniques may also promote a sense of well-being, which may be useful in such chronic painful conditions.
What is actually the outcome of anal fissures as well as fistulas?
Anal fissure is actually usually harmless as well as heals on its own, although that will can be a very painful condition. Complete recovery is actually usual, as well as often occurs spontaneously; only rarely is actually surgery required.
Anal fistula, although rarely a serious condition, often requires surgical treatment, although again complete recovery is actually usual.